Young Composers Project was started in 1959 and was sponsored by the Ford Foundation. It positioned scholars in the public schools for the aim of improvement for the performance ensembles of schools. The Young Composers event was so prosperous that the Ford Foundation elevated and expanded it to one of its ten existing major programs that attracted a considerable increase in financing.[1] The Young Composers was also the direct precursor of the Contemporary Music Project. The goals of Young Composers Project included:

  • To cultivate flavor and discrimination on the side of students and music educators concerning the quality of modern music used in public schools.
  • To increase the importance on the creative part of music in schools.
  • To decrease the compartmentalization that today is seen between music education and profession of music composition.[2]
  • To identify, when probable, creative talent among students.
  • To establish a reliable environment or foundation with the music education career for the acceptance, by an understanding of the modern music.
  1. The Contemporary Music Project (CMP)

The Contemporary Music Project occurred during 1963-1969 and was initiated by the Ford Foundation and MENC. Its goal was to expand and widen efforts started by Young Composers Project.

A substantial result of this project includes a body of repertoire established for school performance teams. Another contribution of Contemporary Music Project was the opportunity for scholars to take part in the creative process by collaborating with composers in their institutions.[3] It was the initial Contemporary Music Project that assisted the Conference on Inclusive Musicianship at Northwestern University. The seminar was arranged to expand the musical knowledge of educators by looking at the necessary university main courses in music history and theory.

The most considerable outcome of this conference was the foundation of the comprehensive term musicianship. A set of philosophies for the reform of the undergraduate music program was introduced during this event. Pilot projects concentrated on the music resourcefulness of young scholars.[4] Music Educators National Conference (MENC) increased a persistent grant from Ford Foundation and directed such projects undertakings as the CMP Library and the establishment of Institutions for creativity in Music Teaching.

  1. Yale Seminar on Music Education 1963

Yale Seminar occurred in 1963 and aimed to examine the difficulties affecting music education, especially in light of an importance on science curricular. Participants in Yale seminar comprised educators, musicians, and students who sought to both improve the repertoire for learning in institutions and deeper expand the experience by the more inclusive study.[5]

  1. Julliard Repertory Project 1964

Julliard Repertory was established in 964 to identify new materials in the form of better music, in its initially composed state that is appropriate for use in the basic grades. Professional consultants were involved to gather and evaluate a lot of vocals and instrumental music from the different times of music history such as pre-renaissance, renaissance, classical, baroque, romantic and contemporary.[6] A board of music educators assessed the collections forwarded by the consultants and recommended particular ones of them for schoolroom testing.7 Seven various public school systems, each acknowledged as keeping a high quality of music guideline, took part in the testing program.[7]

Evaluation of educator and student feedbacks to the test materials was handed to project staff. An anthology of tasks assorted from those checked is to be published. Incorporated in the project report are descriptions of the testing procedures and environments, accounts of the procedures applied in the sections of appropriate works for examining, a list of the materials generated by this report, and its evaluation produced by project consultants and testers.[8]

  1. Tanglewood Symposium 1967

Tanglewood Symposium was held in 1967 and was a significant seminal event that confronted nearly of the elementary principles on which music education in the institutions was located. The Tanglewood Symposium clarified music education theories and practices and gave the guideline for meeting the shifting requirements of arts education.[9] Also, the symposium helped dismiss some of the negative condemnations concerning music education from experts in all fields.

The Tanglewood arose through many factors. Possibly the most remarkable factor was the simple understanding of music instructors that their profession was not consistently adapting to the radical societal reforms of 1960’s. Numerous musical educators discovered that if music was to go on in the US public institution system, there required to be a structured method for direction. Another thing that led to the feeling of a requirement for school was several music teachers’ anger about the Yale Seminar on Music Education.[10] This Seminar was carried out by composers, musicologists, and performers who understood “little or nothing regarding music education and who did this in the absence of music educators”.[11]

  1. Manhattanville Music Curriculum Program (1965-1970)

The MMCP turned out to be importance to the leaders of the 1977 seminar. The MMCP started during 1965, and the recommendation of Ronald Thomas. The major focus of this project was to cultivate the musical experience for scholars in grade K-12 primarily through the development of consecutive curriculum. This program comprised three stages. Stage one assessed traditional music education customs, incorporating curriculum and the methods students studied. The second stage encompassed the evolution of a spiral syllabus modeled after Bruner. It contained a sequence of musical ideas which presented numerous periods at different stages of expansion. The third stage of the MMCP incorporated educator in-service programs gives in the form of syllabus instructions and professional advancement workshops for educators.[12]

  1. MENC’s Goals and Objective Project

The Goals and Objective Project of MENC was founded in 1969 to adopt the recommendations of the Tanglewood seminar. A piloting committee was appointed together with eight subcommittees; each tasked with the inquiry of and requirements for particular features of music education.

Once the advices had been taken into consideration, The MENC appointed two commissions: The MENC National Commission on Instruction and the MENC National Commission on Organizational Development. The Commission on Organizational Development prepared the manner for recommended reforms in the organization, function and structure of the conference, comprising all of its affiliated and federated units.[13]  On the other hand, the National Commission on Instruction was developed to monitor the manner of music that was being educated in institutions.

Factors Affecting Music Events

  1. Economic Influence

Adequate funding received by Music Educators National Conference from Ford Foundation has improved broad formulation and implementation musical programs in schools. Through enough funding, music professional have managed to hold the successive seminar that foresee that scholars get the best syllabus and understanding in their careers. Similarly, poor marketing of music may lead to the low output of music production driving away potential talented artist from the industry.[14]

Continued economic dissatisfaction also puts tumbling pressure on items such as concert ticket costs, advertising finances (which influences permitting incomes for music publishers and record labels) and demand for consumer electronic products (which influences the implementation of contemporary music services).[15]

  1. Sociological Influence

Music is usually associated with numerous social factors apparent in daily life. For instance, peer groups often influence the musical likings of adolescents, and the social boding features of music have been advocated as the origins of music. Also, moving and singing in synchrony may contribute a person to conform suitably to another’s behavioral requests. Another research report on the emotional reacts to music that takes place in the presence of others. Research assessing strong experiences with music has discovered social setting to be an influential aspect affecting emotional encounters.[16]

  1. Philosophical Influence

As an art, music gives rise to interesting philosophical puzzles, several of which have yet to be entirely reflected about. For example, why do people decisively look for and experience sad music? Many people do not decisively look for sad experiences during their daily lives, yet see nothing odd concerning listening to particular music that can make them cry.  Another philosophical effect on contemporary music is more metaphysical or ontological in nature. Originally, people may imagine that a piece of music is similar to a person performance, but this is puzzling since succeeding performances can be dramatically different.[17]

Other psychological questions try to recognize where the emotion in music originates from. These include particular music being ‘sad’ or ‘triumphant,’ which is abnormal provided that nothing in music is sentiment and able to process emotions.

  1. Psychological Influence

The last 19th century witnessed the growth of contemporary music along with the rise of general empirical psychology. The initial one was structuralism psychology that tried to disintegrate experience into smaller describable parts. It led to the development of resonator to separate and understand complex and pure tones and their perception.[18] As structuralism yield to behaviorism and Gestalt psychology at the turn of the century, music psychology shifted to the perception of their inter-relations and human responses to them.

Modern music psychology in the 20th century has expanded to encompass a broad array of applied and theoretical areas. The field has developed together with cognitive science incorporating study areas as music perception, music performance, music development and talent and effective reaction to music.[19] Young composers and Contemporary music project have also led to the introduction of music psychology-particular journals, research groups, conferences, centers, degrees, and societies.

  1. Historical Influence

The past historical views on music education may influence the development and reception of music profession to most individuals. For example, since music was considered less paying, some people have given the career a wide breath with little or no interest. Also, due to negative perception of an artist by the society, people have opted to seek more popular professions. Lastly, lack of attention by federal governments of most states in America may have also affected the full implementation of MENC’s Goals and Objective Project to improve music education and production.[20]

Comparison of Past on Current Events and Trends Differences

  1. Technical Skills

Potential and current education teachers and students, you will be facing an extremely different job market than in the past. Unlike the past where you only needed a basic classroom to get employment, to get employment today, you will be required to have an extensive set of technological skills. Current technical skills required include visual studio, production skills, entrepreneur skills, computer applications and electronic devices knowledge, and be far more flexible in how and where to work.[21]

  1. Application of Advanced Technology

Unlike past music education that relied mainly on the face to face lecturer theory and practical, today education requires the involvement of technology. From programs and apps for anything from teaching chording and music theory to tuning, recording, and improvisation, music education majors, and music educators possess a wealth of choices at their fingertips. Since technology changes rapidly, current students and educators must continually be of what is latest, assess its worth, and study how to use what is relevant.[22]

  1. Access to Information

Unlike past music education that relied and advertised in printed journals, periodicals, and novels, current musical education relies on internet information websites, television and radio programs, YouTube, CD and other relevant technologies.[23]

Similarities

Engage Professional Educators in Classrooms

Both past and current musical programs are held in schools and depend heavily on professional educators for guidelines. The aim of both past and current music education is also intended to improve the music, provide employment and improve entertainment.24

Incorporation of Trend into Future Teaching[24]

Developing an inclusive multi-grade and multi-year plan that attains curricular objectives will guarantee the most effective application of technology within the music curricular and ensure program continuity throughout numerous grade levels.[25] The quality of future music will extremely increase if incorporation of multimedia learning, computer-mediated learning, Web 2.0, digital portfolio, online streaming, digital literacy and teleconferencing is fully effected.

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